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A reference guide on bookbinding types


When I tell people I'm a bookbinder they often think I make only one type of book; the library kind. That, however, is only one of the many ways an artist can create a book. For me, it's a fun challenge to pick the right binding style to go with the purpose of the book. Whether it is a novel that needs to look really classy or medieval, a sketchbook for a graphic novelist or a paper about connections that lets me show the binding. In this article I'm going to tell you a little bit about all the types of bookbinding that I know. I'm not going into details but, if possible, I will link to images and tutorials that do.
If you're here for inspiration: this guide is pretty long. I recommend scrolling through the images first!

To make a start...


The different ways of binding books can be broken down into two general groups: adhesive bindings and non-adhesive bindings. Adhesive bound books are the books you usually buy in bookstores: pockets, hardcovers, etc. Non-adhesive bound books almost always show the way they are bound; they have open spines or show the binding thread on the outside of the book. This last group is called non-adhesive bindings because they can be achieved without using any paste or glue. This is, however, not a necessity.

Terms


Signature - A signature is a set of papers folded one time.
Book block - A book block is a set of sewn signatures or a stack of glued single sheets that make out the inside of the book.
Endpapers - Endpapers are sheets of papers, folded once, attached with a little bit of glue at the spine-side at the front or the back of the book block.
Headband - A headband is a band made out of thread looped around a rope or strip of leather. Headbands can be machinemade and glued at the head and tale of the spine of a book. They can also be handmade by sewing them onto the signatures.
Hinge - The hinge of a book is the place near the spine of the book where the cover folds open.
Rib - A rib is a thickening on the spine of a book. This thickening is created because there are ropes below the cover material. Sometimes fake ribs are created by placing strips of cardboard below the cover material.
Slot - A slot is a cut in the paper, creating a place for the glue to adhere to or the thread to go through.

Non-adhesive bindings


Non-adhesive bindings #1: Pamphlet stitch



The pamphlet stitch can be used to bind single signatures into pamphlet. A string is sewn through 3, 5, 7 or up (depending on the size of the paper) pierced holes in the fold of the signature. Both ends of the string always end up in the middle, creating the opportunity for easy finishing by means of a single knot.
While it could be argued if a single signature can be called a book, I've included it in this list because the pamphlet stitch itself can be used in combination with other binding techniques (such as the Concertina fold) to create multiple signature bindings.
The pamphlet stitch is sometimes used to bind two signatures together. The cover will have a double Accordion fold in the middle with a signature sewn into each inner pleat.
Tutorials:
- Pamphlet Stitch Tutorial by ThePressGang-ink, deviantART tutorial


Non-adhesive bindings #2: Stab-bindings (or Japanese bindings, Album bindings)


Stab bindings can be used to bind single (not folded) sheets into a book. Stab-bound books will not be able to lay flat when opened in the middle. In Japan, these bindings have been used for centuries. 4 major sewing patterns can be identified in Japanese stab-bindings: The Noble binding (Koki Toji), The Tortoise-shell binding (Kikko Toji), The Hemp-leaf binding (Asa-No-Ha Toji) and the 4-hole binding (Yotsume Toji). Covers of stab bindings may be sewn together with the rest of the papers, or folded over or around the book block, making the binding invisible before opening the front cover.
Instead of sewing the pages, they can also be held together using book screws, the so called nuts and posts, creating an album stab-binding. An added bonus of this variety is the ability to add or remove pages, or to change the order of the pages, making it perfect for photo albums, recipe books, collecting books, etc.
Tutorials:
- The Four Hole Bookbind by pdtnc, deviantART tutorial,
- Japanese Stab Binding by lexarch, deviantART tutorial,
- Japanese Bookbinding Tutorial by Tuteate, video


Non-adhesive bindings #3: Long stitch (or Medieval limp binding)


The long stitch binding method is a quick sewing method that binds the signatures and cover together with the same single thread. The cover can be slotted or pierced before sewing, or pierced during the sewing procedure. Because the thread will go in and out of the cover, and in and out of the signatures; two variations of sewing can be used. One variations will see all the outside thread on the same line while the other alternates between slots. Sometimes thread patterns are created by crossing over to different signatures during the sewing process.

Stitch variations on the long stitch binding method include:
- The buttonhole stitch, where alternate slots will be removed to create exposed parts of the signatures, and the signatures will be locked together using the buttonhole stitch at the head and tail of each slot.
- The link stitch, where the binding will not be looped through the ends of the signatures but instead a link stitch will be used at the outside of the cover, creating a sort of chain-binding at the head and tail of the spine.
- Sewing onto tapes, where we sew around tapes instead of cover-slots. These tapes will then be attached to the two separate covers.   
- Sewing onto cords or ropes, where we sew around a cord and then go back into the same pierced hole. The cords will be attached to two separate covers. Sometimes two cords are placed tightly against each other. 
Tutorials:
- Rainbow Book Tutorial by Marenne, deviantART tutorial


Non-adhesive bindings #4: Coptic bindings (including the Caterpillar binding)


The Coptic binding is an appealing exposed spine sewing method. The thread will come out of a pierced hole, loop around a piece of thread from the previous signature, and go back into the same hole. Getting a tight and even binding will take a little practice, but is certainly worth the effort. The binding does not have to be straight, it can be sewn criss-cross or smooth or in patterns. Covers can be made out of folded sheets that may be glued together or from stiff cardboard. It's important to make the covers the exact same height of the pages. The binding is not strong enough to keep the signatures from sagging, if they can not rest on the shelf during storage.
The Caterpillar binding is a variation on the coptic binding using paired holes. Threads coming out of both holes come together in the middle, creating the illusion of a caterpillar with a million legs, crawling over the spine and the covers.
Tutorials:
- Coptic Bookbinding by mouse2cat, deviantART tutorial


Non-adhesive bindings #5: Secret Belgian bindings


The way the secret Belgian bound books are made was only recently rediscovered. This binding method is wonderful because it creates the illusion of a full hardcover book, while you can create the front, back, and spine boards separately. This creates the opportunity to use unbendable materials like plastics and wood for the entire book. The special sewing method binds all three cover-parts and the signatures together in one go.
Tutorials:


Non-adhesive bindings #6: Piano hinge binding (or Skewer binding)


Styles-13 by Marenne
Piano Hinge Book by LuckyCloverArt  Salamander's Book of ... by wee-beastie  Dutch Public Transport Book 1 by Marenne
Piano-hinge Damask Book by msjbass  natural Book- page one by mademoisellemelli

The Piano hinge binding is a very sculptural binding method. It uses pins to bind papers together by inserting them into alternating slots at the bend of the (very thin) signatures. When this kind of book is opened, a dovetail hinge can be seen. 
Tutorials:


Non-adhesive bindings #7: Compound bindings (including the Concertina binding, the Dos-à-dos format and the French doors format.)


Styles-14 by Marenne
Concertina Style Book by TracieMacVean Serial Killer Book Spine by slashmy-soul<da:thumb id="288536075"/> Bookmaking: Accordion album by queenmari
Flower People handmade book by Majnouna<da:thumb id="292810411"/> Seaside - dos a dos journal by ThePressGang-ink
Handle With Care_02 by torn-heart-xo Concertina Photo Album by zellychan La Voz de la Mano by mysticnova7

Compound bindings incorporate two or more binding types into one book. The most common of these compound bindings are the concertina binding, the dos-a-dos format and the French doors format.
The Dos-à-dos format binds two separate books together, sharing one back-cover. Because the spine surfaces face away from each other, these two books can not be read at the same time.
The French doors format also binds two separate books together, only this time, the books can be opened at the same time, much like opening facing balcony doors. The book on the right side would be paged through (comparing it to a normal latin book) from the back to the front.
The Concertina binding is a compound binding where signatures of the book are sewn into the inside pleats of an accordion fold. The outside pleats of this fold may left to fan out, or may be sewn together using any of the stitches motioned above. The advantage of the Concertina binding is that it will open flat, even if the 'signatures' are made from thick materials, materials of varying thickness or are single sheets. The simplest Concertina (or Accordion) book is only a long strip of paper, folded into pages.
Tutorials:


Non-adhesive bindings #8: Rare bindings


Japanese Journal - Springtime by GatzBcn Japanese Journal - Butterfly Dance by GatzBcn

- Japanese Retchoso Binding (Multisection Journal), where two threads cross over each other inside the section and when they exit, go into the next section without making any kind of knots.

Tutorials:



Non-adhesive bindings #9: Contemporary single sheet sewings


In the past decade, several sewing methodes have been developed to bind together single sheets of thicker material. What they all have in common, is that they all have pierced holes at the spine side. These holes, however, are not binding holes like in signature sewings. The actual sewing happens in the hinges between the sheets, making the holes in the sheets merely places for the thread to loop through. Because the hinges are between the sheets, these books can open flat.
Tutorials:
If you're interested in these kind of sewings I highly recommend Keith A. Smiith's Sewing Single Sheets, Volume 4 of his Non-Adhesive Binding series.



Adhesive bindings


Adhesive binding #1: Perfect bindings (or paperbacks, soft-cover books, rubber-back binding, double-fan binding)


A book bound with a perfect binding is a stack of papers hot-glued on one side. The cover is then folded around the stack and the glue is re-heated to make it stick to the spine. In some cases several slots are carved out of the spine surface to create a stronger bond. Perfect bindings are usually created by machines, however they can be made by hand using regular bookbinding glue by bending the stack of papers at the spine side in a way that a millimeter of every paper is exposed, glue the exposed surfaces and then bending it the other way and repeating the process. This is called 'Double-fan binding'.
A paper backed book can also consist of sewn signatures instead of a stack of loose papers.
Tutorials:
There are a lot of tutorials on making paperback books by applying (hot) glue on a pressed stack of paper. In my experience, this won't result in a long lasting binding but can be easy and convenient.


Adhesive binding #2: Bound on boards


A book that has cardboard (or any other thick material) covers but not a cardboard spine is 'bound on boards'. The binding is done as a paperback binding with one exception, the book needs endpapers to attach the boards to the book block. The material that covers the spine is glued on the boards, covering it in its entirety or only an inch or so at the spine side. Sometimes the material that covers the spine is glued on the bottom of the board, if the board has a visual value.


Adhesive binding #3: Case bindings (or case wrapped books, hardcover books)


Styles-03 by Marenne
BMO Mini Book - Adventure Time by MyFebronia Cathedral notebook by edheene ''Kanji'' Book by mbah Selfmade book for Chala by Himbeerschnee
A gift for a friend from Spain by cihanoguzdemirci World Travel Book: Steampunk Edition by Traumfaengerin-Wish Leaves and roots by Drakonee
Cherry blossom wedding album by BlueShadowM<da:thumb id="208327453"/> 'Old Blouse'  Book by liesan
Tape by abimael83 Any Colour You Like by abimael83 Libretas, NoteBook, SketchBook, Encuadernacion by abimael83
 
This binding uses the word 'case' because the book block and the cover are created separately. The cover is then attached to the book block by 'encasing it'. The book block is glued to the cover with its endpapers. The resulting books look very similar to the German bound books but are less durable. Case bindings are the go-to bindings for graphic industry as well as the hand bookbinder because they look very professional and are relatively easy to produce.
This is also the adhesive binding that gives you the most creative opportunities. The 4 bindings below, if created traditionally, have some very strict guidelines to follow. Case bindings, however, can be covered with paper, cloth, leather, etc. They can have either flat or round spines. They can have headbands, bookmarks, pockets in the back and closures. There isn't any rule on how to bind the book block. Sometimes its sewn on tapes or ropes, sometimes its sewn with an unsupported stitch. You can read more on stitching methods in the non-adhesive binding section above.
Tutorials:
When you're searching for bookbinding tutorials, chances are great you'll end up with a tutorial on making a case binding. Some tutorials use only basic materials, and some explain how to use advanced machinery. I recommend looking through a few tutorials before settling on one. There are many variations on how to make corners, what measurements to use, sewing techniques, cover materials etc.
Bookbind Tutorial by lenoki, deviantART tutorial
Bookbinding Tutorial by JamesDarrow, deviantART tutorial
Book Tutorial by Swashbookler, deviantART tutorial
How to bind a book by IsBreaLiomCaife, deviantART tutorial
The binding of Dogs of War by Marenne, deviantART tutorial
Miniature Book Tutorial by trixi-b, deviantART tutorial


Adhesive binding #4: German bindings (or Bradel binding, Bonnet binding, Bristol Board binding)


Faelish by versarnwen The book of Ada Byron by BlueShadowM A Camper Logbook by Marenne
Blue Birthday Journal by usagibrian Black and White Journal by usagibrian<da:thumb id="280923671"/>

The German bindings most identifying marks are the deep grooves along the hinges of the book. They look very similar to case bindings but are constructed in a completely different fashion. Instead of encasing the book block with the finished cover, the cover-material will be added when the boards are already attached to the book block. Traditionally, the book block will always be sewn on cords or bands and the spine will be rounded. Traditional cover materials for this binding are cloth, imitation leather, parchment and luxury paper.
Tutorials:


Adhesive binding #5: French bindings


French Binding -  Grand Albert et Petit Albert by AtelierOcarinah<da:thumb id="267747552"/> Modern Half Leather Binding with French Technique by Folksaga

The French binding's characteristic is the hinge on the outside of the book. In contrast to the German binding, there won't be any visible grooves at the hinges of a French binding because the boards are positioned tightly against the shoulder of the book (this is a fold in the signatures that can be created when the spine is rounded). Traditional French bindings will always be bound on ropes. They are covered with either leather or parchment (fully or only the corners and spine) and the spines are either smooth or enriched with fake ribs.
Tutorials:
I haven't yet found any online tutorials on French bindings.


Adhesive binding #6: English bindings (or Classic binding, Gothic binding, Medieval binding, Renaissance binding)


The English bindings most identifying marks are the real ribs on the spines, created by the thick ropes the signatures are sewn on. Just like the French binding, the English binding has no grooves at the hinges of the book. The ropes that hold the signatures together are woven through the thick cardboard (sometimes even wood) covers. This technique is really sturdy, as can be proven by many surviving monastery bibles still to be seen in musea and special libraries. If you're planning on making really thick and heavy books, this is the way to go. The traditional English binding will only be covered in leather or parchment. 
Tutorials:
Text Block Construction by BCcreativity, deviantART tutorial


Adhesive binding #7: Springback bindings (or Ledger binding)


<da:thumb id="342657897"/> Eye Of Ra Book by versarnwen Butterfly Journal by moberry-tea

The thing that makes a springback binding different from other adhesive bindings is the fact that when the book is opened, the spine of the book block will spring up, creating a gap between the enforced rounded spine of the book and the spine of the book block. The book, when opened, will lay perfectly flat. The hinges of these books will be farther away from the spines than those of other adhesive books. The basic bookbinding instructions are not very different from French or German binding, except where the spine is involved.
Tutorials:


Adhesive binding #8: Overcast block sewing (or Whip stitch).



This sewing method is perfect when you have a stack of printed pages that need to become a normal book that can open flat down the middle and you think using only glue on the spine won't do. First, a thin layer of glue is applied to the spine side of the stack of papers. Next, a row of holes is drilled about 5 millimeters away from the spine of the books. 'Signatures' are then created by cutting off stacks of 6 to 10 pages. These signatures are then sewn together with a whip stitch. This process is extremely time-consuming but is the best way to create flexible book blocks from single sheets by sewing.
Tutorials:

Recommended Reading




For Artisan Craft Week over at projecteducate!

Making this guide took over two full days and yet its probably not complete. If you have any additions, corrections or questions, please comment! :)

A thank you to all who will or have already added this to their favorites! I hope you will use it to create beautiful books!
Add a Comment:
 
:iconsyncallio:
SynCallio Featured By Owner Sep 23, 2017  Hobbyist General Artist
This is fantastic. Thank you!
Reply
:iconmarenne:
Marenne Featured By Owner Sep 23, 2017  Professional Artisan Crafter
You're very welcome :)
Reply
:iconfernandocoutinho:
fernandocoutinho Featured By Owner Apr 1, 2017
Thank you for sharing relevant information. It contributes a lot to everyone.
www.fernandocoutinho.com.br
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:iconlany19:
Lany19 Featured By Owner Feb 22, 2017  Hobbyist Digital Artist
This post saved my university project :P
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:iconmarenne:
Marenne Featured By Owner Feb 22, 2017  Professional Artisan Crafter
I'm glad :D
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:iconclau-schwa:
Clau-Schwa Featured By Owner Aug 15, 2015
I love you, this post gave me life. Please marry me.
Reply
:iconmarichromatic:
Marichromatic Featured By Owner Aug 12, 2015
This guide is amazing, I can't believe I just found it out. Thank you so much for sharing your resources.
Reply
:iconynguer:
ynguer Featured By Owner Mar 12, 2015
Thank you for this post, I seem to have been confusing some of those names. Its always useful to know what to look for
Reply
:iconmarenne:
Marenne Featured By Owner May 26, 2015  Professional Artisan Crafter
You're very welcome :)
Reply
:icondavid-k-manuel:
David-K-Manuel Featured By Owner Jan 6, 2015  Professional Digital Artist
Thank you for assembling this guide. Very informative introduction to this topic.
Reply
:iconpaul-bookbinder:
paul-bookbinder Featured By Owner Oct 31, 2014
A great post, thanks for taking the time out to create it. I was wondering whether you might consider adding my dedicated bookbinding tutorial website as a free resource to the end of your post? I think a few of the readers might find it useful... it's called iBookBinding and the website address: www.ibookbinding.com

Thank you,
Paul
Reply
:iconmarenne:
Marenne Featured By Owner Dec 26, 2014  Professional Artisan Crafter
Thank you, i have added it! :)
Reply
:iconversarnwen:
versarnwen Featured By Owner Oct 16, 2014
Thanks for the features :) Just a heads up though, Faelish is a springback.
Reply
:iconmarenne:
Marenne Featured By Owner Oct 16, 2014  Professional Artisan Crafter
Ah, thanks! I'll change it :)
Reply
:iconmurtaghmorzansson:
murtaghmorzansson Featured By Owner Aug 18, 2014  Student General Artist
what about the French link Coptic book binding www.pinterest.com/pin/16782952…
Reply
:iconmarenne:
Marenne Featured By Owner Aug 19, 2014  Professional Artisan Crafter
That would be a compound binding with the coptic stitch and the long link stitch. :) Lovely! Your work?
Reply
:iconmurtaghmorzansson:
murtaghmorzansson Featured By Owner Aug 19, 2014  Student General Artist
no
Reply
:iconjamesdarrow:
JamesDarrow Featured By Owner Jul 19, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
Thank you for including my work! It's much appreciated. 
Reply
:iconmarenne:
Marenne Featured By Owner Jul 22, 2014  Professional Artisan Crafter
Thank you for making good work to feature! :)
Reply
:iconpulbern:
pulbern Featured By Owner Jun 24, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
Beautifukky written! I dig all the great examples you've provided the viewer. I've been thinking a lot about Japanese binding and think I may try it. :D
Reply
:iconmarenne:
Marenne Featured By Owner Jul 10, 2014  Professional Artisan Crafter
Thank you! I hope you do! :D
Reply
:iconbluelisamh:
Bluelisamh Featured By Owner Jun 21, 2014  Student General Artist
Thanks for including some of my work! I am proud to be a part of this wonderful article :)
Reply
:iconmarenne:
Marenne Featured By Owner Jul 10, 2014  Professional Artisan Crafter
Thanks for making great books to include! :)
Reply
:iconlyth:
Lyth Featured By Owner Jun 13, 2014  Professional Artisan Crafter
Wow! Wow!  You've done a great work collecting all this information. Thanks a lot for a good article! :)
Reply
:iconmarenne:
Marenne Featured By Owner Jul 10, 2014  Professional Artisan Crafter
Thank you and you're welcome :D
Reply
:icontom-addo:
Tom-Addo Featured By Owner Jun 7, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
I wish I could Favorite this again, I just received a old Bible with Adhesive binding #7: Springback bindings that apart from the obvious age of the paper and the failure of the glue in the spine it's like new. It doesn't look like its ever been read. And I immediately though of this for info on how to repair it.
Love Love Love Love LoveLove Love Love Love Love Love Love Love Love Love Love Love Love Love Love Love Love Love Love Love Love Love Love Love Love 
Reply
:iconmarenne:
Marenne Featured By Owner Jul 10, 2014  Professional Artisan Crafter
Those old springback bindings are very rare, since it was an experiment that got abandoned quickly! You're lucky! :D
Reply
:icontom-addo:
Tom-Addo Featured By Owner Jul 10, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
Not as lucky as I once thought. After further examination I found it's still old, but of a type that is cheep and still in production today.
Reply
:iconmarenne:
Marenne Featured By Owner Jul 11, 2014  Professional Artisan Crafter
Aw, pity! :(
Reply
:icontom-addo:
Tom-Addo Featured By Owner Jul 11, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
No worries, I still love old books.Love 
Reply
:iconmarenne:
Marenne Featured By Owner Jul 14, 2014  Professional Artisan Crafter
XD
Reply
:iconalexandenight:
AlexandeNight Featured By Owner Jun 6, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
Thank you!  This is very useful, I've been trying to make books ever since I could draw but never really knew of the possibilities. 
Reply
:iconmarenne:
Marenne Featured By Owner Jul 10, 2014  Professional Artisan Crafter
I hope you'll get some use out of it! :D
Reply
:iconalexandenight:
AlexandeNight Featured By Owner Jul 15, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
I already have ^^  You give such fantastic descriptions, Thank you!
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:iconmarenne:
Marenne Featured By Owner Jul 22, 2014  Professional Artisan Crafter
XD
Reply
:iconfolksaga:
Folksaga Featured By Owner Jun 3, 2014  Professional Artisan Crafter
Thanks for showing some of my books here!
Very nice article :)
Reply
:iconmarenne:
Marenne Featured By Owner Jul 10, 2014  Professional Artisan Crafter
Thanks for making great books to show! :D
Reply
:icondivine-angel-heroine:
Divine-Angel-Heroine Featured By Owner Jun 3, 2014  Hobbyist General Artist
*Eyes very widened.* Whoa.
Reply
:iconmarenne:
Marenne Featured By Owner Jul 10, 2014  Professional Artisan Crafter
XD
Reply
:iconbluelisamh:
Bluelisamh Featured By Owner May 31, 2014  Student General Artist
Thank you for including my work in your feature :) I am honoured that you chose to include it!!
Reply
:iconmarenne:
Marenne Featured By Owner Jul 10, 2014  Professional Artisan Crafter
Thank you for making great works to feature! :D
Reply
:iconjasperk-stoneking:
JasperK-StoneKing Featured By Owner May 29, 2014
This is an amazing article!  Thanks for sharing!
Reply
:iconmarenne:
Marenne Featured By Owner May 31, 2014  Professional Artisan Crafter
You're welcome :)
Reply
:iconthepathofdreams:
ThePathOfDreams Featured By Owner May 28, 2014
This guide is very useful and answered a lot of questions I had about bookbinding! :D I love it!

May I ask what kind of binding would you propose for a really large book (1000 pages)? Is it possible to have a secure and durable binding, while also allowing the book to open properly for reading? Or is splitting the book inevitable? :-/
Reply
:iconmarenne:
Marenne Featured By Owner May 28, 2014  Professional Artisan Crafter
Thank you. :)

For a book that thick you can make a sewn paperback.
It all depends on how much time you want to put in to it. A hardcover book would look better. :)
In that case I recommend German or English binding. The block most definitely needs to be sewn on cords or tapes or the hinges will break.

I wouldn't use any of the non-adhesive bindings cause likely they wouldn't be able to support the weight.

I hope I gave you some ideas! :)
Reply
:iconthepathofdreams:
ThePathOfDreams Featured By Owner May 28, 2014
Yes you did!! Thanks for the fast and helpful reply!! :-) :-)

Keep up the awesome work! :D
Reply
:iconmarenne:
Marenne Featured By Owner May 31, 2014  Professional Artisan Crafter
:D
Reply
:iconnihilistic-hun:
nihilistic-hun Featured By Owner May 27, 2014   Traditional Artist
This is a great article and I'm honored that you included my work.  :wave:
Reply
:iconmarenne:
Marenne Featured By Owner May 31, 2014  Professional Artisan Crafter
Thanks for making lovely work to feature! :)
Reply
:iconpicture-in-a-frame:
picture-in-a-frame Featured By Owner May 27, 2014
geweldig Marenne, super overzichtelijk!
Reply
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